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The Indian education system is based on (10+2+3) pattern under the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD). The MHRD was created on September 26, 1985, through the 174th amendment to the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961.
The main objectives of the Ministry would be:
- Formulating the National Policy on Education and to ensure that it is implemented in letter and spirit
- The planned development, including expanding access and improving quality of the educational institutions throughout the country, including in the regions where people do not have easy access to education.
- Paying special attention to disadvantaged groups like the poor, females and the minorities
- Provide financial help in the form of scholarships, loan subsidy, etc to deserving students from deprived sections of the society.
- Encouraging international cooperation in the field of education, including working closely with the UNESCO and foreign governments as well as Universities, to enhance the educational opportunities in the country.
|UNIT X – Higher Education System (Click below on the topic to read the study notes)
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The MHRD works through two departments:
- Department of School Education & Literacy
- Department of Higher Education
|The Union Cabinet cleared a new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 proposing sweeping changes in school and higher education. you can through it on the link – NEP 2020 (Official) |
There is a chance that few questions would be asked in upcoming UGC NET Exam 2023.
Structure of Indian Education System
The Indian education system works for primary education to research specialised education. It can be categorised as follows:
- School Education & Literacy
- Primary Schooling
- Secondary education
- Senior Secondary Education
- Higher Education (Tertiary Education)
- Academic Degrees (Non-professional)
- Professional Degrees
- Technical Degrees
- Vocational Education (Skilled Based)
According to the new revised syllabus of UGC NET, we have to study only related to higher and skilled based education.
Higher Education System
Higher education is also called the tertiary education system. Indian higher education system is the third-largest in the world, next to the United States and China, comprising academic, professional and technical degrees.
This section will discuss Professional, Technical and Skill Based Education
Academic Degrees (Non-Professional Education)
Non-professional education emphasizes the theoretical study and is not primarily designed as preparation for professional careers. These degree programs may lead to research, thereby conferring the title of ‘doctor’. These courses prepare the student for a life of scholarship in an academic discipline, rather than specific applications of knowledge to professional practices. Moreover, students earning academic qualification do not often make use of the degree in their profession.
Examples of such degree courses are Bachelor of Arts (B.A.), Bachelor of Science (B.Sc), Master of Arts (M.A.), Master of Science (M.Sc), Master of Philosophy (M.Phil), Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), etc.
Academic degrees, such as BA, B.Sc. and B.Com have been considered more ‘traditional’ and well-established forms of higher education and are available in a variety of specializations, such as B.A Economics, B.A English, B.A Hindi, B.Sc. Physics, B.Sc. Computer Science, B.Sc Applied Science, and the list goes on. An academic degree typically provides a thorough education and knowledge on the specific subject, after which the student can pursue a master’s degree or a professional course.
Traditionally, academic degree courses held more value, but the popularity of professional courses in recent times have firmly established their ground in the job market.
- Keeps More Career Options Open
- Helps You Specialise
- Doesn’t Make You Job-Ready like professional degrees
A professional degree helps students prepare for careers in specific fields, such as law, pharmacy, medicine, and education. Professional education is a formalized approach to specialized training in a professional school through which participants acquire content knowledge and learn to apply techniques.
Some common goals of professional education include:
- incorporating the knowledge and values basic to a professional discipline;
- understanding the central concepts, principles, and techniques applied in practice;
- attaining a level of competence necessary for responsible entry into professional practice; and
- accepting responsibility for the continued development of competence.
Examples of Professional Education (degrees)
- Surgery and Medicines (MBBS, MS, MD)
- Dentistry (BDS)
- Management Studies (MBA)
- Law (LLB, LLM)
- Education (B.Ed., M.Ed.)
- CA, ICWA, CS etc.
Technical Education (Technical Degree)
According to Britannica, “Technical education is the academic and technical preparation of students for jobs involving applied science and modern technology. It emphasises the understanding and practical application of basic principles of science and mathematics.
In Indian context, technical education covers programmes in engineering, technology, management, architecture, town planning, pharmacy, applied arts & crafts, hotel management and catering technology.
The apex body of Technical Education is All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE). was set up in November 1945 as a national-level apex advisory body to conduct a survey on the facilities available for technical education and to promote development in the country in a coordinated and integrated manner. Later, AICTE was established by AICTE Act, 1987.
Examples of Technical Education:
- Engineering and Technology (Diploma, B.Tech, M.Tech)
- Architecture (B.Arch, M.Arch)
- Pharmacy (B.Pharma, M.Pharma), etc.
Skill Based Education (Vocational Education)
Vocational education also called Career and Technical Education (CTE), prepares learners for jobs that are based in manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic and totally related to a specific trade, occupation or vocation, hence the term, in which the learner participates. It is sometimes referred to as technical education, as the learner directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques or technology.
Vocational Education is a skill-based education, where learners get skill through practical and academical knowledge. The Skill based Education is fully job oriented for a specific field.
Examples of Skill Based Education (Vocational Education)
- Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
- SANKALP (Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion)
- Polytechnic Schemes
- Promote Vocational education in School and Higher Education
Professional councils are responsible for recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions and providing grants to undergraduate programmes and various awards. The statutory professional councils are:
- All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE)
- Medical Council of India (MCI)
- Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR)
- National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
- Dental Council of India (DCI)
- Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) Indian
- Nursing Council (INC)
- Bar Council of India (BCI)
- Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH) Central
- Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM)
- Council of Architecture
- Distance Education Council (DEC)
- Rehabilitation Council
- National Council for Rural Institutes (NCRI)
- State Councils of Higher Education (SCHE)
1. All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE), Faridabad
All India Council for Technical Education has been established under the AICTE Act, 1987. The council is authorized to take all steps that are considered appropriate for ensuring coordinated and integrated development of technical education and for maintenance of standards.
2. Medical Council of India (MCI), New Delhi
The Medical Council of India (MCI) was set up by the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, amended in 1993. The council is empowered to prescribe minimum standards for medical education required for granting recognized medical qualifications by universities or medical institutions in India.
3. Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi
ICAR has established various research centres in order to meet the agricultural research and education needs of the country. It is actively pursuing human resource development in the field of agricultural sciences by setting up numerous agricultural universities spanning the entire country. It provides funding to nearly 30(Thirty) State Agricultural Universities, one Central University and several Deemed Universities. These universities employ about 26,000 scientists for teaching, research and extension education; of these over 6000 scientists are employed in the ICAR supported coordinated projects.
4. National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE), New Delhi
The National Council for Teacher Education is a statutory body set up under the National Council for Teacher Education Act, 1993 to facilitate planned and coordinated development of the teacher education system in the country, and for regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards in the teacher education system. The mandate given to the NCTE is very broad and covers the whole gamut of teacher education programs including research and training of persons to equip them to teach at preprimary, primary, secondary and senior secondary stages in schools, and nonformal education, part-time education, adult education and distance (correspondence) education courses.
5. Dental Council of India (DCI), New Delhi
Dental Council of India, constituted under the Dentists Act, 1948, is a Statutory Body incorporated under an Act of Parliament to regulate the dental education and the profession of Dentistry throughout India. The Council is responsible for according recognition to dental degree awarded by various universities and also for maintaining uniform standards of dental education in India. The Dental Council of India (DCI) lays down minimum requirements in respect of staff and infrastructure and prescribes the syllabus and the scheme of examinations.
6. Pharmacy Council of India (PCI), New Delhi
The Pharmacy Council of India (PCI), also known as Central council, was constituted under section 3 of the Pharmacy Act, 1948. The PCI controls pharmacy education and profession in India up to graduate level. The Council prescribes the minimum standard of education for qualification as a pharmacist.
7. Indian Nursing Council (INC), New Delhi
The Indian Nursing Council is a statutory body constituted under the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947. The Council is responsible for regulation and maintenance of a uniform standard of training for Nurses, Midwives, Auxiliary NurseMidwives and Health Visitors.
8. Bar Council of India (BCI), New Delhi
The Bar Council of India is empowered to make rules to discharge its functions under the Advocates Act 1961. An important rulemaking power is with reference to laying down guidelines for the standards of professional conduct and etiquette to be observed by advocates. The Bar Council of India Rules may prescribe for a class or category of the person entitled to be enrolled as an advocate. The Bar Council of India can also specify the conditions subject to which an advocate must have the right to practise and the circumstances under which a person must be deemed to practise as an advocate in a court.
9. Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH), New Delhi
The Central Council of Homeopathy was established under the Homeopathy Central Council Act, 1973. The Council prescribes and recognizes all homoeopathic medicine qualifications. Any university or medical institutions that desire to grant a medical qualification in homoeopathy is required to apply to the Council. The Council is responsible for constitution and maintenance of a Central Register of Homeopathy and for matters connected therewith. All universities and the Board of medical institutions in India are required to furnish all information regarding courses of study and examination. The Council is empowered to appoint inspectors at examinations and visitors to examine facilities.
10. Central Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM), New Delhi
The Central Council of Indian Medicine is the statutory body constituted under the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970. This Council prescribes minimum standards of education in Indian Systems of Medicine viz. Ayurved, Siddha, Unani Tibb. The Council is responsible to maintain a Central Register on Indian Medicine and prescribes Standards of Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Code of Ethics to be observed by the practitioners. The Council is empowered to appoint medical inspectors to observe the conduct of examinations, and visitors to inspect facilities in colleges, hospitals and other institutions imparting instruction in Indian medicine.
11. Council of Architecture, New Delhi
The Council of Architecture (COA) was constituted under the provisions of the Architects Act, 1972, enacted by the Parliament of India. The Act provides for registration of Architects, standards of education, recognized qualifications and standards of practice to be complied with by the practising architects. The Council of Architecture is responsible to regulate the education and practice of profession throughout India besides maintaining the register of architects. Any person desirous of carrying on the profession of “Architect” must register himself with Council of Architecture.
12. Distance Education Council, New Delhi
Distance Education Council was constituted under statute 28 arising from Section 25 of the Indira Gandhi National Open University Act, 1985. The Distance Education Council (DEC) is responsible for the promotion and coordination of the open university and distance education system and for determination of its standards. The Council provides academic guidelines to promote excellence, encourage the use of innovative technologies and approaches, enable the convergence of all systems and sharing of resources through collaborative networking for access to sustainable education, skill up-gradation and training to all.
13. Rehabilitation Council of India, New Delhi
The Rehabilitation Council of India was set up as a registered society in 1986. However, it was soon found that a Society could not ensure proper standardization and acceptance of the standards by other Organizations. The Parliament enacted Rehabilitation Council of India Act in 1992. The Rehabilitation Council of India become Statutory Body on 22nd June 1993. The RCI Act was amended by the Parliament in 2000 to work it more broad-based. The Act casts onerous responsibility on the Council. It also prescribes that any one delivering services to people with disability, who does not possess qualifications recognised by RCI, could be prosecuted. Thus the Council has the twin responsibility of standardizing and regulating the training of personnel and professional in the field of Rehabilitation and Special Education.
14. National Council for Rural Institutes, Hyderabad
National Council of Rural Institutes is an autonomous society fully funded by the Ministry of HRD, Govt. of India. Registered on 19th October 1995 with its Headquarter at Hyderabad, It was established with the main objective of promoting Rural Higher Education for advancing rural livelihoods with the instrument of education on the lines of Mahatma Gandhiji’s revolutionary concept of Nai Talim, a functional education based on the values proposed by Gandhiji. Other objectives of the council include teachers training, extension and research by networking with policy-making bodies such as UGC, AICTE and research organizations like CSIR, AICTE etc., in addition to encouraging other educational institutions and voluntary agencies to develop in accordance with Gandhian Philosophy of education.